Image result for richard nixon

Describe the rise of conservative movement as seen in the presidential candidacy of Barry Goldwater (1964) and the election of Richard M. Nixon

  1. Nixon Campaign – what was his strategy to win

Nixon wanted to reach out to the middle class of America which he called the “silent majority”. He wanted to promise peace, but unlike his opponent he had no stated plan to do this. He tried to impact the voters feelings by promising peace, especially with the amount of protests there had been over war and rights. It was a very close race, but in the end Nixon won and became our 37th President of the United States.


Reflection: I think it was really genius of Nixon to aim for the middle class majority and touch their feelings. I think this didn’t make as huge of an impact on America as some of the other topics learned. However, I think any president will make an impact some way and some how, negative or positive.





Explain the importance of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring and the resulting developments; include Earth Day, the Creation of the EPA and modern day environmental policy CREATE AN EARTH DAY 2017 FLYER

  1. Rachel Carson –  who was she, what was her book, Silent Spring about, how did it prompt legislative action – explain Earth Day
  2. NEPA – what was NEPA, what does the EPA set out to do
  3. Major environmental policies that EPA is in charge of now,

Rachel Carson was the Editor in Chief for the federal government for all publications about Fish and Wildlife. She was an ecologist ans an excellent writer. She wrote her book, Silent Spring, in 1962. This warned the public about the dangerous effects of using pesticides and how they can be misused. She warned many of the agricultural sections in the government about how we need to take care of our planet and reduce the amount of chemicals we use. This led to more awareness and more policies to protect the plants and water.

NEPA stands for National Environmental Policy Act.  They ensure that before the government is always considering how the environment will be affected once their laws or projects go into action. They have requirements for buildings such as airports, highways, and military complexes that must be followed.


Reflection: I did not know about Rachel Carson and how much of an affect she made on our environment and our use of chemicals in agriculture. I think the most important thing in this section is the EPA because they are still saving our environment and ensuring that we keep it into consideration today.



Image result for united farmers workers movement

Analyze Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Worker’s Movement

  1. Who is Cesar Chavez
  2. United Farmers Workers Movement – Why was it created, objective, was it successful

Chavez was a union leader and labor organizer. He was the founder of the United Farmers Workers Movement. He promoted nonviolent methods such as boycotts. The United Farmers Workers Movement was founded in 1962 as a labor union for farmers. They still affect farmers and big organizations today.


Reflection: I already knew about this material. This is important because it still affects us today and is still a huge role in labor organizations.




Describe the National Organization of Women (NOW) and the origins and goals of the modern women’s movement – TAKE BACK THE NIGHT EVENT FLYER FOR COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY OF CHOICE

  1. Founding of NOW
  2. Major actions and accomplishments  -Take Back the Night how have they contributed to the women’s movement
  3. Feminine Mystique – what is it, importance
  4. Roe v. Wade – Who was the chief justice, what was the decision on what constitutional/legal ground

NOW stands for the National Organization for Women. Its goal is to “ bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now, exercising all privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men.” It was founded on June 30th, 1966 by Betty Friedan.

The purpose of the Take Back the Night event is to bring awareness to sexual assaults to women. It mainly focuses on college campuses since the numbers for those facilities are so high. They often bring victims of sexual assault to speak of their experiences and to show how badly it affects people.

Feminine Mystique is a book written by Betty Friedan. It suggests the insecurities of women and how truly unhappy they are. This raised controversy because many men were confused as to how the women could be unhappy, but many women agreed with the ideas. Some believed the context of the book was really stretched out since a lot of the meaning came from critics rather than the actual book.

Roe wanted to abort her baby, but Texas said that this wasn’t allowed unless it was a life or death situation for the mother. Roe argued that the constitution gave her this right. The court decided that this fell under the fourteenth amendment under the right to privacy. The Chief Justice was Warren E. Burger.




Reflection: I didn’t know that the book Feminine Mystique brought such controversy and attention to the women’s rights movement. I think that all of these thing are important because they helped us gain women’s rights and things like NOW and Take Back the Night are still things going on today.





Image result for freedom rides and sit ins

Compare and contrast the Student Non-violent coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tactics; include sit-ins, freedom rides and changing composition

  1. What were the objectives, who were the organizers of the: NAACP, SNCC and SCLC  (SNCC – summer of 1964)
  2. Freedom Rides & Sit- in – explain what each is, why were these methods chosen over others (Montgomery Bus Boycott)
  3. Changing composition – how many African Americans were elected officials (or leaders in their neighborhoods, cities, states) in the 1960’s (University of California v. Bakke   – Who was the chief justice, what was the decision on what constitutional/legal ground) 

The NAACP was founded February 12th, 1909 by Mary White Ovington, Oswald Garrison Villard, William English Walling, and Dr. Henry Moscowitz. Their goal was to confront civil issues mainly pertaining to blacks and worked for anti lynching laws and desegregation. It stood for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

The SNCC stood for the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. It was founded in Febuary 1960 by Ella Baker. It gave younger blacks in schools more of a voice in the civil rights movement.

The SCLC stood for Southern Christian Leadership Conference and its president of Martin Luther King Jr until he was assassinated. Its goal was to protest civil rights without violence. TN

Freedom Rides and Sit ins were simple. Blacks would go into white restaurants  and asked to be served. When denied, they would sit silently and wait despite any intimidation. Even if they were attacked they would ball up and wait. Once the police came to arrest them more blacks would come in and continue the act. They did the same on buses and eventually these policies were changed. This worked better than other strategies because they weren’t being violent or doing anything wrong.

After the Civil War, 23 African Americans were elected officials and 98 were after reconstruction. These numbers skyrocketed after and during the Civil Rights Movement. The University of California had spots reserved for minorities, even though Bakke had better GPA and credentials than these minorities. Bakke argued that this went against the Equal Protection Clause. The Supreme Court did agree that they cannot factor in race when deciding.





Image result for Robert Kennedy Assassination

Describe the social and political turmoil of 1968;include the assassinations of MLK Jr, Robert Kennedy and the events surrounding the DNC

  1. MLK assassination – who killed him, why
  2. MLK assassination Riots – when, where, why, what happened, affects
  3. Robert Kennedy Assassination – Who killed him, why, what role did Robert play politically at that time
  4. 1968 Chicago Democratic National Convention (DNC) riots – causes what happened result

On April 4th, 1968 MLK was assassinated by James Earl Ray who shot him in the neck. Ray claimed to be part of a conspiracy. There was supposed to be a second trial but Ray passed away. His widow insisted that he would’ve been seen as innocent if the trial did happen and that lots of information would have been brought up. Martin Luther King’s assassination just threw gasoline on the fire for the civil rights movement. After the assassination riots were happening all throughout Memphis. 40,000 national guard troops were sent. Many were grieving and upset by this and felt like without him history would go back in time and get rid of all the work and freedom they have been building up to.

Robert Kennedy was shot by Shiran Shiran on June 5th 1968. Robert Kennedy was currently a senator for California. Shiran confessed to the crime and originally was sentenced to death, but instead spent his life in prison. He, who was from Palestine, believed that Kennedy was against Palestinians.

The DNC riots were anti-Vietnam-War riots. The riots were televised which only gave more fuel to the flame. Many Americans now felt that being in the war was pointless and was killing our citizens for no reason. McCarthy was essentially the leader of these riots.

Reflection: I was shocked to learn that Robert Kennedy was assassinated because of assumptions that he was against Palestinians. It further makes me not want to be a politician.  I think these riots and deaths have affected us today but not as much as other things I have learned in this unit.




Image result for medicare

Explain Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society; include the establishment of Medicare

  1. What was the “Great Society” – Domestic  policies created and passed to make his “Great Society” possible
  2. What is Medicare how is it funded, who does it take care of

In Johnson’s Great Society, he wanted to end poverty, fix the cities, give equal education, and protect our environment. To get to this goal he passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. He also develop Medicare which pulls a little bit of money from general taxes and give it to the elderly and the disabled.

Reflection: I learned that Johnson was the one who developed Medicare, which is still in use today.




Image result for JFK assassination

Describe the political impact of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy; include the impact on civil rights legislation

  1. Who shot him, why, where, what date. who became president when he died.
  2. What was Johnson’s viewpoint on Civil Rights
  3. What Civil Rights legislation was Kennedy working on that never got passed

John F. Kennedy was shot by Harvey Oswald on November 22nd, 1963 at 12:30 p.m. They were in Dallas and when they reached the Texas School Book Depository Building, shots were fired. There are many conspiracies as to why JFK was assassinated. Some blame the Mafia, and some even blame Lyndon Johnson. No one will ever truly know why this tragedy happened. After his death, the Vice President Lyndon Johnson became the 36th President of the United States. Kennedy was working on a Civil Rights Bill, that was eventually changed by Johnson and passed as the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Although Johnson got the Civil Rights Act passed, he was extremely racist. He often used derogatory and practically forbidden words. Many of the segregationists were upset by him because they felt as though he betrayed them.  They thought he was on their team.

Reflection: I was very shocked to hear the language that Johnson frequently used, especially considering how far he has moved the country with pushing the Civil Rights Act to be passed. I think this was a terrible event in history and still brings pain and concern today.





Image result for supreme court civil rights

Describe the Warren Court and the expansion of individual rights as seen in the Miranda decision COURT CASES INFOGRAPHIC

  1. What years was Earl Warren Chief Justice, what “type” of court did he have
  2. What was each case about,  the decision and on what constitutional/legal ground
        1. Brown v. Board of Education
        2. Gideon v. Wainwright
        3. Reynolds v. Sims
        4. Griswold v. Connecticut
        5. Miranda v. Arizona

Earl Warren served as a Chief Justice from 1920-1969. He was known as a “crime fighter” while he was a district attorney. He was very honest and fought back a lot of corruption. He is known for his work in desegregation and even investigated the assassination of John F. Kennedy.

The first Brown v Board of Education was within the district and decided against desegregation because they believed the schooling was equal. The second in the Supreme Court finally did eliminate segregation in public schooling because they were truly not equal.

Gideon was charged with entering and wanting to commit a misdemeanor which under Florida law is a federal crime. He denied a counsel and he sent a petition to the Supreme Court saying it went against the sixth amendment. The Supreme Court agreed this went against the sixth amendment and that it does in fact include the district courts.

In the Reynolds v. Sims case, they ruled that uneven state legislation was unconstitutional because it affected voting rights. They were specifically fighting against the 14th amendment with the Equal Protection Clause.

The Supreme Court in the Griswold v Connecticut case that Connecticut could not ban contraceptives. Griswold, who worked at Planned Parenthood and was the executive director, was found illegally providing contraceptives. Griswold said this went against marital privacy and the Supreme Court agreed.

Ernesto Miranda was not informed of his right to an attorney and against self-incrimination. Miranda wasn’t given an attorney and represented himself in court where he confessed to the crimes. Miranda wasn’t in the right position to do this because he had been in a mental institute and had very minimal schooling. The Supreme Court ruled that you must be informed of your rights before trial.

Reflection: I really do not understand Reynolds v. Sims and why it is so important to the civil rights movement, however all of these court cases were extremely important. They still are in affect today and two of them actually affect me personally as you read.




civil right act

Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights act of 1965

  1. Civil Rights act of 1964 – which president signed this, what were the provisions of the act, how did this help Civil Rights (discrimination based on race and even gender)  from this point forward
  2. 24th Amendment – what did the amendment stipulate, how did this help those with limited voting rights
  3. Voting Rights Act of 1965 – What were the provisions of the law, what ways did States try to go around this

Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Under this act, there was no longer any segregation of races or religion in public grounds.  They also banned discrimination of race, gender, religion, and nationality in the work place. They created the “Equal Employment Opportunity Commission” to follow up with these cases. They also assisted schools with desegregation. This is what made everything really official and put religion and gender under the category of protection as well. This is still leaving an extreme impact today.

The 24th amendment outlawed charging a voting tax at the polls in federal elections. This was banned in state elections as well in 1966. However, this still did not protect discrimination of races, religions, and genders at the polls. This lead to the Voting Rights Act of 1965. This helped with those who couldn’t afford the tax. This made the vote more accurate because it included the lower income citizens. It also eliminated people giving a higher poll tax to blacks than whites so they weren’t able to vote.

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 banned literacy tests and provided federal oversights in areas where white registered voters dominated. Specifically areas where less than half of the nonwhite population had registered to vote. This was a red flag to them and they wanted to ensure the act was being followed. It was also later edited to include citizens who don’t speak English. The southern states, specifically Mississippi, tried to get around this which is why it had federal oversight.

Reflection: None of this information was new for me. I forgot that the Civil Rights Act was made after JFK’s assassination. All of these things have extremely impacted America and are still extremely important today. They all have been edited to fit our society today and be an umbrella for other minorities.