civil right act

Describe the causes and consequences of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights act of 1965

  1. Civil Rights act of 1964 – which president signed this, what were the provisions of the act, how did this help Civil Rights (discrimination based on race and even gender)  from this point forward
  2. 24th Amendment – what did the amendment stipulate, how did this help those with limited voting rights
  3. Voting Rights Act of 1965 – What were the provisions of the law, what ways did States try to go around this

Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Under this act, there was no longer any segregation of races or religion in public grounds.  They also banned discrimination of race, gender, religion, and nationality in the work place. They created the “Equal Employment Opportunity Commission” to follow up with these cases. They also assisted schools with desegregation. This is what made everything really official and put religion and gender under the category of protection as well. This is still leaving an extreme impact today.

The 24th amendment outlawed charging a voting tax at the polls in federal elections. This was banned in state elections as well in 1966. However, this still did not protect discrimination of races, religions, and genders at the polls. This lead to the Voting Rights Act of 1965. This helped with those who couldn’t afford the tax. This made the vote more accurate because it included the lower income citizens. It also eliminated people giving a higher poll tax to blacks than whites so they weren’t able to vote.

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 banned literacy tests and provided federal oversights in areas where white registered voters dominated. Specifically areas where less than half of the nonwhite population had registered to vote. This was a red flag to them and they wanted to ensure the act was being followed. It was also later edited to include citizens who don’t speak English. The southern states, specifically Mississippi, tried to get around this which is why it had federal oversight.

Reflection: None of this information was new for me. I forgot that the Civil Rights Act was made after JFK’s assassination. All of these things have extremely impacted America and are still extremely important today. They all have been edited to fit our society today and be an umbrella for other minorities.





Describe the Significance of Martin Luther King Jr.’s Letter from Birmingham Jail and his I Have A Dream speech MLK INSPIRATIONAL MEME

  1. When was it written, What was the letter about, why did he write it, to who, what is his argument  – analysis of its importance to Civil Rights Movement
  2. March on Washington – who organized it, what was the objective – Was it achieved
  3. I Have A Dream Speech – what was his message, to who was it to – analysis of its importance to the Civil Rights Movement
  4. Opposite of non-violent
      1. Malcolm X – who was he, how did he appeal to African Americans, how did he think African Americans should go about securing their rights
      2. Black Panthers – objectives, beliefs actions

King Jr.’s Letter from Birmingham Jail was written on April 16, 1963 while Martin Luther King Junior was serving time for protesting. King had read a letter from religious leaders that was published into a newspaper. The letter criticized King and his demonstrations of Good Friday. King, in response, wrote a 7,000 word letter defending himself and his cause. He reminded those who oppose him about the new desegregation of schools as well. This letter showed that justice cannot be silenced, even from a jail cell. The powerful words are taught in schools around the world and has been translated into 40 other different languages.

The March on Washington was organized by religious leaders and different civil rights activists, specifically black civil right activists. A. Phillip Randolph chaired both the first March on Washington, which ended up not happening, and the second one which was huge success. 200,000 black and white Americans marched side by side to support a similar cause. The march was organized to eliminate discrimination and it proved that whites and blacks can work side by side to fight for equality.

The I Have a Dream speech gave hope to thousands of Americans and even people across the world to fight for justice and equality. It sought to unite African Americans and whites and allow them to fight together and to be friends. He wanted everyone to be equal and to work together as one big movement rather than separating the blacks and whites, even in times of protest. He welcomed all and simply wanted to truly remove the figurative “enslavement” of discrimination that the African Americans still endured. This was not only important to the civil rights movement, but gave hope to those across the world who have read this. It fired up the movement by spreading hope and igniting passion.

Malcolm X was an activist for black Muslim faith and rights. He changed his last name to X to signify that he rejects his slave name. While spending time in jail for a burglary, he became interested in the Muslim faith and starting following the words of Muhammad. Eventually thought he thought it was corrupt. He strongly believed that blacks should fight back hostile whites in anyway he can, including violence. This strongly went against what MLK preached, which was nonviolent protests.

The Black Panthers were heavily influenced by Malcom X. They were a group who strongly believed in standing up for themselves and they practiced militant self defense. Some Panthers went as far as to kill cops and to bring guns into protest. Not only was this self defense, but it was a scary and violent message.

Reflection: I was unaware of the Black Panthers, I strongly disagree with what they were doing because I think we should fight with peace. However, I slightly understand it as well because obviously it was a slow fight for true freedom from discrimination and is still going on today. So I can understand why they took a different route. I think out of this standard Martin Luther King Jr. was the biggest impact, as his words are still being taught in schools everywhere.





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Explain Brown v. Board of Education and efforts to resist the decision

  1. Who was the chief justice, what was the decision on what constitutional/legal ground
  2. Brown II
  3. Little Rock Nine – year, who, what happened and result
  4. University of Alabama – year, who, what happened and result

Brown v. Board of Education was a group of 5 different cases all regarding segregation and discrimination in public schools. The specific Oliver Brown case however was against a city in Kansas saying that the education was not equal between the black and the white children. The district court (Brown I) said that the schools were equal. Luckily, Brown appealed this and it was sent to the supreme court (Brown II). The chief justice was Earl Warren. It was an unanimous decision that the segregation in schools violated the fourteenth amendment. They now gave equal education to all races.

In September of 1957, 9 black students, including Minnijean Brown and Elizabeth Eckford, tested the newly nonsegregated school system and enrolled in an all white school in Arkansas. The students endured counseling sessions to prepare them for the backlash and even had the National Guard escort them in,. The students faced protesters everyday as they walked into school and they would even be spit on. They were bullied often in school and one of the Little Rock Nine had acid thrown in her face. After the first year the school was shut down and the city voted to have the schools segregated. The students finished their high school careers elsewhere.

George Wallace was the governor of Alabama in 1962. He strongly believed in segregation and blocked the enrollment office of the University of Alabama to keep it segregated, despite the fact it was unconstitutional. JFK sent down National Guard troops and forced the desegregation. Later that year, Wallace also tried to block desegregation at a public high school. Troops were sent in once again and Wallace was forced to comply. On June 11, 1963 the University of Alabama was officially desegregated.

Reflection: I was pretty familiar with all of these topics. However, I had no idea how much George Wallace was against segregation. I will never be able to understand how someone can judge others based on the color of their skin and give someone less opportunists because of it. Especially those in political positions whose job is to please the people, no matter what race, gender, or sexuality. I think all three of these events have greatly impacted America and truly are things to be celebrated.






Dodging Racial Expectations

ID Jackie Robinson and the integration of baseball – MAKE YOUR OWN MOVIE POSTER  

    1. What year and team did this began
    2. Reaction of team mates, other MLB teams, fans
    3. When did other black players make it into the major leagues

Jackie Robinson started playing for the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. He was an excellent baseball player and won multiple awards such as Rookie of the Year and was put into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962. He was also given the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1984. Robinson sparked passion in African Americans across the states. Thousands of his African Americans fans would travel long distances fill the stadium to see him play.

However, not everyone was as pleased. In his career, Jackie Robinson received a lot of hate mail, name calling, aggressive opponents, and even death threats. Many of the other players in Major League Baseball thought the decision wouldn’t work out. Some even tried to say that Branch Rickey, president of the Dodgers, was forced into hiring Jackie.  Robinson had quiet reactions to this and ignore most of them until 1949 when he began to speak out against racial discrimination. Jackie Robinson truly changed history not only in baseball, but across America.

Jackie was the first to end the racial gap in Major League Baseball, but many followed shortly after. A few months after Robinson, Larry Doby played for the Cleveland Indians. Year by year African Americans became more common in baseball. It was an exponential growth once it was started up. Robinson was the push that was needed to put African Americans into the major league

Reflection: I didn’t know that Robinson won the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1984. I think all of this content has drastically sped up the process during the Civil Rights movement. It certainly was an inspiration to many and still is today.




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Explain the importance of President Truman’s order to integrate the US military and the federal government

    1. What was Executive order 9981
    2. How did the EO impact the military and federal government

The Executive order 9981 was a huge step in the civil rights movement. This order from President Truman in 1948 ended all discrimination in the US Military. It also provided equal opportunity to rise ranks in the military. Truman decided to make this order because of the recent reactions of the public, specifically incidents happening in Monroe, Georgia and Aiken South Carolina. In Monroe, two soldiers and their wives were shot by a group of white men after being dragged into the car. In Aiken, a police officer beat a soldier and blinded him. This was after the solider was kicked off of a bus because he was being disruptive. This truly impacted Truman and he decided to make the Executive Order 9981 and 9980, which got rid of discrimination in the Federal area as well.

Reflection: In this post, I will definitely remember the incidents happening in Monroe and Aiken. I had no idea such terrible things were happening to soldiers who have came back from the war. The Executive Order 9981 has definitely impacted life today. It is still in use and has definitely pushed us to have better civil and racial rights.


Executive Order 9981