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Describe the rise of conservative movement as seen in the presidential candidacy of Barry Goldwater (1964) and the election of Richard M. Nixon

  1. Nixon Campaign – what was his strategy to win

Nixon wanted to reach out to the middle class of America which he called the “silent majority”. He wanted to promise peace, but unlike his opponent he had no stated plan to do this. He tried to impact the voters feelings by promising peace, especially with the amount of protests there had been over war and rights. It was a very close race, but in the end Nixon won and became our 37th President of the United States.


Reflection: I think it was really genius of Nixon to aim for the middle class majority and touch their feelings. I think this didn’t make as huge of an impact on America as some of the other topics learned. However, I think any president will make an impact some way and some how, negative or positive.





Explain the importance of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring and the resulting developments; include Earth Day, the Creation of the EPA and modern day environmental policy CREATE AN EARTH DAY 2017 FLYER

  1. Rachel Carson –  who was she, what was her book, Silent Spring about, how did it prompt legislative action – explain Earth Day
  2. NEPA – what was NEPA, what does the EPA set out to do
  3. Major environmental policies that EPA is in charge of now,

Rachel Carson was the Editor in Chief for the federal government for all publications about Fish and Wildlife. She was an ecologist ans an excellent writer. She wrote her book, Silent Spring, in 1962. This warned the public about the dangerous effects of using pesticides and how they can be misused. She warned many of the agricultural sections in the government about how we need to take care of our planet and reduce the amount of chemicals we use. This led to more awareness and more policies to protect the plants and water.

NEPA stands for National Environmental Policy Act.  They ensure that before the government is always considering how the environment will be affected once their laws or projects go into action. They have requirements for buildings such as airports, highways, and military complexes that must be followed.


Reflection: I did not know about Rachel Carson and how much of an affect she made on our environment and our use of chemicals in agriculture. I think the most important thing in this section is the EPA because they are still saving our environment and ensuring that we keep it into consideration today.



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Analyze Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Worker’s Movement

  1. Who is Cesar Chavez
  2. United Farmers Workers Movement – Why was it created, objective, was it successful

Chavez was a union leader and labor organizer. He was the founder of the United Farmers Workers Movement. He promoted nonviolent methods such as boycotts. The United Farmers Workers Movement was founded in 1962 as a labor union for farmers. They still affect farmers and big organizations today.


Reflection: I already knew about this material. This is important because it still affects us today and is still a huge role in labor organizations.




Describe the National Organization of Women (NOW) and the origins and goals of the modern women’s movement – TAKE BACK THE NIGHT EVENT FLYER FOR COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY OF CHOICE

  1. Founding of NOW
  2. Major actions and accomplishments  -Take Back the Night how have they contributed to the women’s movement
  3. Feminine Mystique – what is it, importance
  4. Roe v. Wade – Who was the chief justice, what was the decision on what constitutional/legal ground

NOW stands for the National Organization for Women. Its goal is to “ bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now, exercising all privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men.” It was founded on June 30th, 1966 by Betty Friedan.

The purpose of the Take Back the Night event is to bring awareness to sexual assaults to women. It mainly focuses on college campuses since the numbers for those facilities are so high. They often bring victims of sexual assault to speak of their experiences and to show how badly it affects people.

Feminine Mystique is a book written by Betty Friedan. It suggests the insecurities of women and how truly unhappy they are. This raised controversy because many men were confused as to how the women could be unhappy, but many women agreed with the ideas. Some believed the context of the book was really stretched out since a lot of the meaning came from critics rather than the actual book.

Roe wanted to abort her baby, but Texas said that this wasn’t allowed unless it was a life or death situation for the mother. Roe argued that the constitution gave her this right. The court decided that this fell under the fourteenth amendment under the right to privacy. The Chief Justice was Warren E. Burger.




Reflection: I didn’t know that the book Feminine Mystique brought such controversy and attention to the women’s rights movement. I think that all of these thing are important because they helped us gain women’s rights and things like NOW and Take Back the Night are still things going on today.





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Compare and contrast the Student Non-violent coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tactics; include sit-ins, freedom rides and changing composition

  1. What were the objectives, who were the organizers of the: NAACP, SNCC and SCLC  (SNCC – summer of 1964)
  2. Freedom Rides & Sit- in – explain what each is, why were these methods chosen over others (Montgomery Bus Boycott)
  3. Changing composition – how many African Americans were elected officials (or leaders in their neighborhoods, cities, states) in the 1960’s (University of California v. Bakke   – Who was the chief justice, what was the decision on what constitutional/legal ground) 

The NAACP was founded February 12th, 1909 by Mary White Ovington, Oswald Garrison Villard, William English Walling, and Dr. Henry Moscowitz. Their goal was to confront civil issues mainly pertaining to blacks and worked for anti lynching laws and desegregation. It stood for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

The SNCC stood for the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. It was founded in Febuary 1960 by Ella Baker. It gave younger blacks in schools more of a voice in the civil rights movement.

The SCLC stood for Southern Christian Leadership Conference and its president of Martin Luther King Jr until he was assassinated. Its goal was to protest civil rights without violence. TN

Freedom Rides and Sit ins were simple. Blacks would go into white restaurants  and asked to be served. When denied, they would sit silently and wait despite any intimidation. Even if they were attacked they would ball up and wait. Once the police came to arrest them more blacks would come in and continue the act. They did the same on buses and eventually these policies were changed. This worked better than other strategies because they weren’t being violent or doing anything wrong.

After the Civil War, 23 African Americans were elected officials and 98 were after reconstruction. These numbers skyrocketed after and during the Civil Rights Movement. The University of California had spots reserved for minorities, even though Bakke had better GPA and credentials than these minorities. Bakke argued that this went against the Equal Protection Clause. The Supreme Court did agree that they cannot factor in race when deciding.